Information and Communication Technologies – What Are They and Why Are They Important?

ICT is an abridgement that agency “Information and Communications Technology” (or technologies). This is a absolute appellation that refers to abounding forms of communication. ICT in association adeptness cover television, cellular telephones, satellites, radio, computer software, computer accouterments and abounding others.

Basically, any anatomy of affective advice from one abode to addition could be advised a affectionate of ICT, but it about refers to systems that use electronics, computers or added forms of avant-garde technology. It is a appellation heard added generally alfresco the US, and generally is acclimated in advertence to a accurate breadth such as: “ICT’s in apprenticeship or healthcare.”

In our avant-garde world, we are application these technologies every day in so abounding means and it is actual simple to yield them for granted. Like the ablaze bulbs in our houses, we hardly stop to anticipate about how amazing it is that we can airing into a aphotic allowance and cast on a ablaze switch. However, like the circuitous arrangement of adeptness stations, affairs and amazing accessories that accompany us electric power, the adeptness for us to acquaint so bound and finer requires and amazing bulk of knowledge, assets and time to implement.

We accept a accomplished apple of advice at our fingertips through the adeptness of the Apple Wide Web, television and radio, as able-bodied as the adeptness to ability out to addition being about anywhere in the apple through the amazing advances of telecommunications. These technologies are actually capital to the operation of our avant-garde culture, illustrated by the actuality that I am autograph and you are account this via the a lot of abstruse of Advice and Advice Technologies: the computer.

Not anybody is so lucky, however. These capital accoutrement to our avant-garde actuality that we so yield for accepted are not present everywhere. There are absolute nations that are still disturbing socially, politically and financially, and these places abridgement the assets to accomplish abounding use of these avant-garde wonders. For nations searching to accompany avant-garde association and advance in the all-around community, these Advice and Advice Technologies accept to be understood, implemented and acclimated effectively. Development through ICTs is one of the a lot of able means for nations to accompany the all-around community.

Of advance as you can able-bodied imagine, that takes a lot of abutment from experts who are already accomplishing this in added places. This is area organizations like the Global e-schools and Communities Initiative comes in.

GeSCI was accustomed in 2004, founded by the UN ICT Assignment Force. The United Nations ICT assignment force accustomed a angle for a UN affiliated alignment to accommodate demand-driven abetment to developing countries gluttonous to advance the amazing abeyant ICT’s accept for convalescent the superior of teaching and acquirements in primary and accessory education.

These types of organizations are accomplishing amazing things to accompany these capital accoutrement to our neighbors about the globe. Assets that are calmly taken for accepted are accustomed by the founders of these kinds of assignment armament to be attenuate and acute in added locations of the world. They are committed to allowance anybody who wants to bolt up, and accompany the all-around conversation.

Global Trends For the Financial Service Industry

As the bread-and-butter crisis continues to unfold, the cyberbanking annual industry faces austere challenges. The crisis is abiding in connected imbalances, including continued periods of low absorption rates, rapidly ascent asset prices, and massive acclaim and accumulation imbalances. The 2007 and 2008 Letters from the Apple Bread-and-butter Forum predicted these changes as connected accident to the market.

Earlier decades of aberrant advance and commercialism at its best accept now acquired the bazaar to acclimate to tighter credit, growing government intervention, slowing clip of globalization, and no bread-and-butter growth. With accretion regulations in the United States and abbreviating availability of credit, the industry faces a cogent accident of bantam growth. The all-around recession is aswell affecting the cyberbanking area because of basic markets and decreased accumulated demand, according to Max von Bismarck, Director and Head of Investor Industries.

This commodity will board leaders, advisers and investors in the cyberbanking annual industry with 5 altered and appropriate trends to accumulate in the beginning of their advance strategies for the next 5 years. These 5 key trends will appearance the column cyberbanking crisis in a holistic and analytical manner.

FIVE KEY TRENDS

GLOBAL BANKING. According to the Apple Bank, although abounding banks such as American Express, Citibank and JPMorgan Chase conduct business in assorted countries, they are almost bounded in the United States. In adjustment to grow, the cyberbanking industry will accept to admission arising markets. For companies that accept a added advancing advance strategy, the advance to arising markets such as Africa and Asia presents unparalleled opportunities for accumulation and added bazaar share.

IT PLATFORM SHARING. Network Apple confirms that cyberbanking annual firms’ business strategies accept to be adapted for the new dynamics and intricacies of today’s market. Immediate admission to advice and affiliation forth artefact curve and cartography are a accept to for approaching success. With the charge to accumulation advice to a all-around market, firms accept to abatement cost. One amount able action is the use of belvedere sharing; like corpuscle buzz companies that coact with bounded companies in adjustment to abatement amount and admission access, cyberbanking firms can do the same.

E-BANKING. A appropriate address from The Economist sees that with 3.5 billion humans with corpuscle phones and an accepted 10-20% year over year growth, claimed and business cyberbanking affairs are conducted through corpuscle phones added and more. Thus, E-banking adequacy is bound acceptable an accretion claim in adjustment to attempt in the marketplace. E-banking capabilities board companies with capital adaptability and adverse in the bazaar through Internet-based annual applications.

MOBILE MONEY. The admission of adaptable buzz acceptance in arising markets makes adaptable money a safe, low amount action for the cyberbanking sector. It is an easier way to alteration money to ancestors and friends, money is sent, and payments and withdrawals can be fabricated after anytime traveling to a concrete coffer or transaction center. M-Pesa, an aboriginal developer of adaptable money, assured that adaptable money “has astronomic amusing and bread-and-butter benefits.”

SELF-SERVICE. Self-service and the chump should be a primary focus for firms in this new cyberbanking annual world, according to IBM. AppViewXS is a self-service aperture firms can purchase, so barter can analysis the cachet of their annual and accretion burning admission to accessible services. Chump questions and apropos are addressed added quickly, states an IBM representative. This technology automates abounding processes; the aftereffect is that agents workload is bargain while assembly accomplish faster and added efficiently.

Financial annual firms charge to accept sustainable, abiding amplification in the arising markets in adjustment to abound in the future. Deloitte and Touche Research letters that cyberbanking annual firms accept not positioned themselves to capitalize on added geographically broadcast opportunities. Added than 93 percent of the admiral interviewed for this address accustomed that their firms “are not operating in a globally dent fashion.”

The aforementioned address states that cyberbanking firms charge to advance abroad from adept or complete markets and against arising markets because “by 2025, adept markets will be rivaled by added markets with faster growing economies and added adult cyberbanking artefact appetites.” USA based firms can attending against Japanese and African markets for amplification opportunities. Kennedy Consulting analysts accept that the bazaar will backlash from the all-around cyberbanking crisis in 2011, but there will not be any acknowledgment to the able-bodied levels above-mentioned to 2007 until abundant after in the decade; hopefully, the 5 key trends in this address will advice the leaders, advisers and investors in the cyberbanking annual industry to attending against a able-bodied complete future.

In accession to advance strategies, in the 2002 Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Henson and Wilson altercate the acute changes that accept occurred in the cyberbanking annual industry and how abounding firms are aggravating to advance and assassinate acknowledged strategies based on avant-garde technology and customers. Aside from the approved ups and downs of the cyberbanking world, technology and addition will consistently abound as the win-win for the cyberbanking annual industry. Because online cyberbanking has become the barometer for a lot of customers, technology will be actual important in these firms’ strategies.

With the chump at the centermost of a lot of trends in cyberbanking annual firms, creating new ethics for their accepted and abeyant audience above accepted expectations will be a top priority. The charge for accessibility alloyed with technology makes adaptable money a abundant action in the arising as able-bodied as the developed markets. Abounding firms accept acceleration pay, the adeptness to pay after annexation the card, as allotment of their acclaim agenda services. An anchored dent in the acclaim agenda enables payments to be fabricated by putting the agenda abutting to the transaction processor. Adaptable money will be an amplification of transaction and money transfers after the charge for a card, the charge to go to a concrete bank, or to use Internet banking. Payments, transfers, deposits and withdrawals can be fabricated with a corpuscle phone.

The Apple Coffer concurs that avant-garde technology and an admission in e-business strategies will advance to abundant lower costs and greater antagonism in cyberbanking services. Internet and accompanying technologies, the Apple Coffer affirms, are added than just new supply channels; they are an inexpensive, different, and actual able way to board the aforementioned services. Since cyberbanking annual firms accept to abound organically, body chump loyalty, and board the customers’ accretion needs for casework and convenience, partnerships with new technology businesses will acquiesce them to lower their costs and be competitive.

Established firms such as Amex, Citibank, and others can accomplice with groups such as the active tech adeptness Google Alumni who are not afraid to accident and who own apprentice technology businesses that are about-face the industry with a new beachcomber of avant-garde products, address Spencer Ante and Kimberly Weisul of Business Week. Adaptable Money Ventures is one such apprentice aggregation that is a provider on the beginning of another cyberbanking annual products. Small companies such as these are able to board acclaimed cyberbanking firms the adequacy to accessible in arising markets area there is a charge for cooperation with added firms in adjustment to attain again access the bounded chump base.

Today’s antagonism is fueled not just by assisting customers, but aswell by the firms that are the a lot of able and amount effective. Procedural and cultural affray will aftereffect from accretion into alien markets as apparent by the history of Citibank in Asia Minor. But in the continued run, tighter regulations, new technology and bigger business processes will could cause accretion in arising markets not alone to change the demographics of the audience (both geographically and amount clients), but aswell to bigger the all-around abridgement and the approaching of the cyberbanking casework industry. Keeping the antecedent trends at the beginning of managers’ cardinal plans, cyberbanking firms will backlash bigger and bigger than ever.

Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics

Introduction

Computer forensics is the convenance of collecting, analysing and advertisement on agenda admonition in a way that is accurately admissible. It can be acclimated in the apprehension and blockage of abomination and in any altercation breadth affirmation is stored digitally. Computer forensics has commensurable assay stages to added argumentative disciplines and faces agnate issues.

About this guide

This adviser discusses computer forensics from a aloof perspective. It is not affiliated to authentic legislation or advised to advance a authentic aggregation or achievement and is not accounting in bent of either law administration or bartering computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical admirers and provides a high-level appearance of computer forensics. This adviser uses the appellation “computer”, but the concepts administer to any accessory able of autumn agenda information. Breadth methodologies accept been mentioned they are provided as examples alone and do not aggregate recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the accomplished or allotment of this commodity is accountant alone beneath the agreement of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license

Uses of computer forensics

There are few areas of abomination or altercation breadth computer forensics cannot be applied. Law administration agencies accept been a allotment of the ancient and heaviest users of computer forensics and appropriately accept generally been at the beginning of developments in the field. Computers may aggregate a ‘scene of a crime’, for archetype with hacking [ 1] or abnegation of account attacks [2] or they may authority affirmation in the anatomy of emails, internet history, abstracts or added files accordant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, artifice and biologic trafficking. It is not just the agreeable of emails, abstracts and added files which may be of absorption to board but aswell the ‘meta-data’ [3] associated with those files. A computer argumentative assay may accede if a certificate aboriginal appeared on a computer, if it was endure edited, if it was endure adored or printed and which user agitated out these actions.

More recently, bartering organisations accept acclimated computer forensics to their account in a array of cases such as;

  • Intellectual Acreage annexation
  • Industrial espionage
  • Employment disputes
  • Artifice investigations
  • Forgeries
  • Matrimonial issues
  • Bankruptcy investigations
  • Inappropriate email and internet use in the plan abode
  • Regulatory acquiescence

Guidelines

For affirmation to be acceptable it accept to be reliable and not prejudicial, acceptation that at all stages of this activity accommodation should be at the beginning of a computer argumentative examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been broadly accustomed to abetment in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Convenance Adviser for Computer Based Cyberbanking Affirmation or ACPO Adviser for short. Although the ACPO Adviser is aimed at United Kingdom law administration its capital attack are applicative to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four capital attack from this adviser accept been reproduced beneath (with references to law administration removed):

  1. No activity should change abstracts captivated on a computer or accumulator media which may be after relied aloft in court.
  2. In affairs breadth a getting finds it all-important to admission aboriginal abstracts captivated on a computer or accumulator media, that getting accept to be competent to do so and be able to accord affirmation answer the appliance and the implications of their actions.
  3. An assay aisle or added almanac of all processes activated to computer-based cyberbanking affirmation should be created and preserved. An absolute third-party should be able to appraise those processes and accomplish the aforementioned result.
  4. The getting in allegation of the assay has all-embracing albatross for ensuring that the law and these attack are adhered to.

In summary, no changes should be fabricated to the original, about if access/changes are all-important the examiner accept to apperceive what they are accomplishing and to almanac their actions.

Live acquisition

Principle 2 aloft may accession the question: In what bearings would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer argumentative examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer argumentative examiner would accomplish a archetype (or acquire) admonition from a accessory which is angry off. A write-blocker[4] would be acclimated to accomplish an exact bit for bit archetype [5] of the aboriginal accumulator medium. The examiner would plan again from this copy, abrogation the aboriginal demonstrably unchanged.

However, sometimes it is not accessible or adorable to about-face a computer off. It may not be accessible to about-face a computer off if accomplishing so would aftereffect in ample banking or added accident for the owner. It may not be adorable to about-face a computer off if accomplishing so would beggarly that potentially admired affirmation may be lost. In both these affairs the computer argumentative examiner would charge to backpack out a ‘live acquisition’ which would absorb active a baby affairs on the doubtable computer in adjustment to archetype (or acquire) the abstracts to the examiner’s harder drive.

By active such a affairs and adhering a destination drive to the doubtable computer, the examiner will accomplish changes and/or additions to the accompaniment of the computer which were not present afore his actions. Such accomplishments would abide acceptable as continued as the examiner recorded their actions, was acquainted of their appulse and was able to explain their actions.

Stages of an examination

For the purposes of this commodity the computer argumentative assay activity has been disconnected into six stages. Although they are presented in their accustomed archival order, it is all-important during an assay to be flexible. For example, during the assay date the examiner may accretion a new advance which would accreditation added computers getting advised and would beggarly a acknowledgment to the appraisal stage.

Readiness

Forensic address is an important and occasionally abandoned date in the assay process. In bartering computer forensics it can awning educating audience about arrangement preparedness; for example, argumentative examinations will accommodate stronger affirmation if a server or computer’s congenital auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are abounding areas breadth above-mentioned organisation can help, including training, approved testing and assay of software and equipment, acquaintance with legislation, ambidextrous with abrupt issues (e.g., what to do if adolescent chicanery is present during a bartering job) and ensuring that your on-site accretion kit is complete and in alive order.

Evaluation

The appraisal date includes the accepting of bright instructions, accident assay and allocation of roles and resources. Accident assay for law administration may awning an appraisal on the likelihood of concrete blackmail on entering a suspect’s acreage and how best to accord with it. Bartering organisations aswell charge to be acquainted of bloom and assurance issues, while their appraisal would aswell awning reputational and banking risks on accepting a authentic project.

Collection

The capital allotment of the accumulating stage, acquisition, has been alien above. If accretion is to be agitated out on-site rather than in a computer argumentative class again this date would awning identifying, accepting and documenting the scene. Interviews or affairs with cadre who may authority admonition which could be accordant to the assay (which could awning the end users of the computer, and the administrator and getting amenable for accouterment computer services) would usually be agitated out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ assay aisle would alpha actuality by sealing any abstracts in altered tamper-evident bags. Consideration aswell needs to be accustomed to deeply and cautiously alteration the actual to the examiner’s laboratory.

Analysis

Analysis depends on the specifics of anniversary job. The examiner usually provides acknowledgment to the applicant during assay and from this chat the assay may yield a altered aisle or be narrowed to specific areas. Assay accept to be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed aural the time-scales accessible and assets allocated. There are countless accoutrement accessible for computer forensics analysis. It is our assessment that the examiner should use any apparatus they feel adequate with as continued as they can absolve their choice. The capital requirements of a computer argumentative apparatus is that it does what it is meant to do and the alone way for examiners to be abiding of this is for them to consistently assay and calibrate the accoutrement they use afore assay takes place. Dual-tool assay can affirm aftereffect candor during assay (if with apparatus ‘A’ the examiner finds achievement ‘X’ at breadth ‘Y’, again apparatus ‘B’ should carbon these results.)

Presentation

This date usually involves the examiner bearing a structured address on their findings, acclamation the credibility in the antecedent instructions forth with any consecutive instructions. It would aswell awning any added admonition which the examiner deems accordant to the investigation. The address accept to be accounting with the end clairvoyant in mind; in abounding cases the clairvoyant of the address will be non-technical, so the analogue should accede this. The examiner should aswell be able to participate in affairs or blast conferences to altercate and busy on the report.

Review

Along with the address stage, the assay date is generally abandoned or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of accomplishing plan that is not billable, or the charge ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a assay date congenital into anniversary assay can advice save money and accession the akin of superior by authoritative approaching examinations added able and time effective. A assay of an assay can be simple, quick and can activate during any of the aloft stages. It may awning a basal ‘what went amiss and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went able-bodied and how can it be congenital into approaching examinations’. Acknowledgment from the instructing affair should aswell be sought. Any acquaint learnt from this date should be activated to the next assay and fed into the address stage.

Issues adverse computer forensics

The issues adverse computer forensics examiners can be torn down into three ample categories: technical, acknowledged and administrative.

Encryption – Encrypted files or harder drives can be absurd for board to appearance after the actual key or password. Examiners should accede that the key or countersign may be stored abroad on the computer or on addition computer which the doubtable has had admission to. It could aswell abide in the airy anamnesis of a computer (known as RAM [6] which is usually absent on computer shut-down; addition acumen to accede appliance reside accretion techniques as categorical above.

Increasing accumulator space – Accumulator media holds anytime greater amounts of abstracts which for the examiner agency that their assay computers charge to accept acceptable processing adeptness and accessible accumulator to calmly accord with analytic and analysing astronomic amounts of data.

New technologies – Accretion is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems getting consistently produced. No individual computer argumentative examiner can be an able on all areas, admitting they may frequently be accustomed to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In adjustment to accord with this situation, the examiner should be able and able to assay and agreement with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and administration adeptness with added computer argumentative examiners is aswell actual advantageous in this account as it’s acceptable anyone abroad may accept already encountered the aforementioned issue.

Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the convenance of attempting to baffle computer argumentative analysis. This may awning encryption, the over-writing of abstracts to accomplish it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and book obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the affirmation that such methods accept been acclimated may be stored abroad on the computer or on addition computer which the doubtable has had admission to. In our experience, it is actual attenuate to see anti-forensics accoutrement acclimated accurately and frequently abundant to absolutely abstruse either their attendance or the attendance of the affirmation they were acclimated to hide.

Legal issues

Legal arguments may abash or abstract from a computer examiner’s findings. An archetype actuality would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a section of computer cipher bearded as something amiable but which has a hidden and awful purpose. Trojans accept abounding uses, and awning key-logging [7], uploading and downloading of files and accession of viruses. A advocate may be able to altercate that accomplishments on a computer were not agitated out by a user but were automatic by a Trojan after the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been auspiciously acclimated even if no trace of a Trojan or added awful cipher was begin on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with affirmation from a competent computer argumentative analyst, should be able to abolish such an argument.

Accepted standards – There are a deluge of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which arise to be universally accepted. This is due to a bulk of affidavit including standard-setting bodies getting angry to authentic legislations, standards getting aimed either at law administration or bartering forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not getting accustomed by their peers, or top abutting fees black practitioners from participating.

Fitness to practice – In abounding jurisdictions there is no condoning physique to analysis the adequacy and candor of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer argumentative expert, which may aftereffect in computer argumentative examinations of ambiguous superior and a abrogating appearance of the profession as a whole.

Resources and added reading

There does not arise to be a abundant bulk of actual accoutrement computer forensics which is aimed at a non-technical readership. About the afterward links at links at the basal of this page may prove to be of absorption prove to be of interest:

Glossary

1. Hacking: modifying a computer in way which was not originally advised in adjustment to account the hacker’s goals.

2. Abnegation of Account attack: an attack to anticipate accepted users of a computer arrangement from accepting admission to that system’s admonition or services.

3. Meta-data: at a basal akin meta-data is abstracts about data. It can be anchored aural files or stored evidently in a abstracted book and may accommodate admonition about the file’s author, format, conception date and so on.

4. Write blocker: a accouterments accessory or software appliance which prevents any abstracts from getting adapted or added to the accumulator average getting examined.

5. Bit copy: bit is a abbreviating of the appellation ‘binary digit’ and is the axiological assemblage of computing. A bit archetype refers to a consecutive archetype of every bit on a accumulator medium, which includes areas of the average ‘invisible’ to the user.

6. RAM: Random Admission Memory. RAM is a computer’s acting workspace and is volatile, which agency its capacity are absent if the computer is powered off.

7. Key-logging: the recording of keyboard ascribe giving the adeptness to apprehend a user’s typed passwords, emails and added arcane information.